Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.

Functional outcomes

What are functional outcomes? 

Functional outcomes include work performance, relationships, and living skills which may be adversely affected by schizophrenia. Developing coping skills to manage general life stressors and illness complications may help improve functional outcomes.

What is the evidence for functional outcomes?

High and moderate quality evidence suggests an association between poor cognitive functioning and poor functional outcomes in general. Poor problem-solving is associated with difficulties in attention, working memory, verbal learning, and reasoning. Poor social skills are associated with difficulties in attention, visual learning, reasoning, verbal learning, and insight. More severe negative symptoms (for example social withdrawal) but not positive symptoms (delusions and hallucinations), strengthen the relationship between poor cognitive functioning and poor community functioning. Moderate to low quality evidence suggest the most commonly reported strategies people with schizophrenia use to cope with symptoms and general life stress are avoidance and problem-focused strategies, and these improve quality of life and long-term symptom outcomes. The severity of social disability varies in the developing world, with better outcomes in India and Indonesia and poorer outcomes in China, Brazil and African countries.


June 2017

Page last updated: 4:45  21 August 2017

To view documentation related to this topic download the files below