Risk Factors

Schizophrenia is a complex disorder and has been associated with many causative factors, both genetic and environmental. With a heritability estimate around 80%, schizophrenia has a strong genetic component and this is reflected in the large number of genes that have been associated with the disorder.

However, schizophrenia has also been associated with many environmental risk factors, in particular various prenatal and perinatal stressors, infectious agents, childhood and adulthood trauma and substance use. The strength of association between these factors (and others not yet identified) with the subsequent development of schizophrenia is still unknown and the interaction effects between genetic and environmental causes can vary from person to person.

Antecedents are physical and cognitive alterations observed in people prior to the onset of schizophrenia, usually in childhood and adolescence, and may be early indicators of illness progression. They are still being investigated, but may include motor and cognitive dysfunction, speech and language impediments, behavioural problems and psychopathology such as anxiety, delusions and hallucinations.

 

May 2017

Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.