Topics tagged with "Avoidance"


What are avoidance symptoms in PTSD? Avoidance is a core symptom of PTSD, with at least one avoidance symptom required for a diagnosis. People often try to cope with the trauma by avoiding distressing memories, thoughts, or feelings associated with the event. This may be effective in the short-term, but in the long term it may be associated with poorer outcomes. What is the evidence for avoidance symptoms in people with PTSD? Moderate to low quality evidence finds three clusters of avoidance symptoms. These are avoidance of thoughts and feelings, avoidance of activity, and avoidance of memory. Avoidance of thoughts/feelings;…

Assessment tools

Assessment tools

What are assessment tools for PTSD? Standardised assessment tools for PTSD are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. They are often used within a controlled research environment, but high-quality assessment tools are also useful in practice for both clinical management and outcome prediction. What is the evidence for outcome assessment tools for PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds a model comprising 4-factors of intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria/numbing yielded the best fit for clustering PTSD symptoms. Assessment measures for this model included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Modified PTSD Symptom Scale,…


How is a PTSD diagnosis made? A PTSD diagnosis requires exposure to at least one trauma. Traumas include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing a trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed. At least one “intrusion” symptom is required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include unwanted and upsetting memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and emotional distress or physical reactions following reminders. At least one “avoidance” symptom is also required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include avoidance of trauma-related thoughts or feelings,…

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