Topics tagged with "Schizophrenia and cognition"

Time perception

What is time perception? Time perception involves the capacity to accurately process temporal information that is embedded in relevant events. The ability to perceive, remember, and organise behaviour in periods ranging from seconds to minutes mediates functions, from basic motor coordination to decision making. As time intervals make different demands on other cognitive processes, it is difficult to disentangle deficits in temporal perception from deficits in attention and memory. There are several types of time perception. Explicit timing involves a deliberate estimate of a discrete duration of time, while implicit timing is an automatic process that is engaged whenever sensorimotor…

Treatments for cognitive symptoms

What are cognitive symptoms? Cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia have been found in all cognitive domains, including executive function, memory, and attention, and often develop prior to the other symptoms of schizophrenia. They are highly disabling and predict poor functional outcomes. What is the evidence for treatments for cognitive symptoms? Overall, moderate to high quality evidence suggests second-generation antipsychotics are associated with small improvements in processing speed, verbal fluency, learning, motor skills, long-term memory, and global cognition when compared to first generation antipsychotics, but have no benefit over first generation antipsychotics for improving attention, cognitive flexibility, working memory, delayed recall, or…

Metacognitive training

What is metacognitive training? Research has found that many people with schizophrenia have biased cognitive processes, and have a lack of insight about these problems. Biased cognitive processes are thought to underlie delusional beliefs. The aim of metacognitive training is to make patients aware of delusion-relevant cognitive biases and then to amend these biases. Cognitive biases in people with schizophrenia involve a tendency to jump to conclusions based on a small amount of information, and make errors when trying to find reasons for their own and others’ behaviours. Research has shown that people with schizophrenia are often unsure about their…

Metacognition

What is metacognition? Metacognition refers to ‘thinking about thinking’ and involves active control over the cognitive processes engaged in thinking and acquiring knowledge or learning. Metacognition also involves the notion of self, ranging from self as own body to self as own identity or ‘agency’. A sense of body ownership occurs regardless of whether an action is generated by the self or others, whereas a sense of agency refers to the sense of being the one who initiates an action. Sense of agency is linked to the ability to maintain the distinction between the individual and the environment. Intrusive thoughts…

Cognition in high-risk groups

Who are people at high-risk of psychosis? There are two key approaches for identifying people with early signs that may suggest a high risk of developing psychosis or schizophrenia. The first approach is based on Huber’s Basic Symptoms, which focuses on a detailed way of describing phenomenological (subjective) disturbances. Because the basic symptoms refer only to subtle subjectively experienced abnormalities, they may reflect an earlier phase in the disease process than the second approach, which identifies at-risk mental states as a combination of; a family history of psychosis (familial risk) plus non-specific symptoms and recent decline in functioning; recent onset…

For cognition

What are cognitive rehabilitation interventions? Cognitive impairment is a significant problem for many people with schizophrenia, effecting domains such as executive functioning, attention, memory and social cognition. These deficits interfere considerably with day-to-day function. Cognitive remediation or rehabilitation interventions usually take the form of repetitive exercises with or without computers and sometimes augmented by group sessions, strategy coaching and homework exercises, which serve as training for cognitive processes as well as social skills and communication. Strategy learning focuses on providing alternative strategies to compensate for the observed difficulties with cognition; in contrast, rehearsal learning is aimed at restitution of lost…

Reasoning ability

What is reasoning? Reasoning refers to the ability to logically gather information to form conclusions and solve problems. People with schizophrenia may show impaired reasoning, with bias in the way they gather information, interpret events and develop beliefs. Reasoning bias is usually measured in three ways: “jumping to conclusions” (JTC) is when a decision is made after little information is gathered; belief inflexibility is an inability to change a belief even when presented with disconfirmatory or confirmatory evidence (BADE/BACE); and attribution bias is when available evidence is incorrectly used to attribute negative or positive events to internal or external causes….

Decision making

What is ‘decision making’ referring to?  Decision making requires the use of knowledge and experience of a context in order to choose a course of action. The ability to autonomously make decisions is referred to as their decisional capacity. Effective decision-making aims to increase the likelihood of a favourable outcome in the relevant context, selecting responses that avoid unfavourable or harmful outcomes. An experimental tool used to examine decision-making is the Iowa Gambling Task. On each trial, participants choose a card from one of four decks and receive a monetary gain or loss. Two decks (A, B) are disadvantageous and…

Memory

What is memory?  Memory involves encoding, storage and retrieval of information. Short-term memory is the ability to remember information after several seconds or minutes and long-term memory is the ability to remember information over a longer duration. Working memory involves information being temporarily held as well as manipulated. Episodic memory is long-term memory for autobiographical events. Semantic memory involves memory for general facts, prospective memory involves memory for future actions, and retrospective memory is memory for past events. What is the evidence for memory? Compared to controls, moderate to high quality evidence finds medium to large effects of poorer short-term,…

Learning

What is learning?  Learning is the ability to acquire, or change, existing knowledge, behaviours or skills. There are two distinct forms of learning: explicit (or declarative) learning occurs during a high level of consciousness regarding specific learnt content, for example, memorising information for an exam. Implicit (or procedural) learning is less conscious and refers to learning which is gained from task performance, for example, juggling. Explicit verbal learning can be measured with the Hopkins Verbal Learning test, the California Verbal Learning test and verbal list-learning. The Brief Visuospatial memory test, the Rey design learning test, the Rey complex figure test,…

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