Topics tagged with "Schizophrenia and stress"

Parental psychological factors

How do parental psychological factors relate to schizophrenia? Exposure to maternal psychological factors such as stress, depression or psychosis during pregnancy, may be linked to risk of schizophrenia in the offspring. The mechanisms by which these factors influence risk of schizophrenia is unclear, however genetic predisposition and/or inflammatory processes caused by stress during pregnancy may be involved. What is the evidence for parental psychological factors? Moderate quality evidence suggests a medium-sized effect of increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring of mothers or fathers who had psychosis during the 24th-28th gestational week of pregnancy. There were no effects on risk of…

Adult life events

What are adult life events? Life events that occur during adulthood are defined as particularly significant experiences that result in substantial changes to personal circumstances. These changes may be positive or they may be negative changes and can occur across all aspects of life, including health, education, employment, relationships, bereavement, housing, legal, and financial issues. What is the evidence for adult life events as risk factors for schizophrenia? Moderate quality evidence finds a medium-sized increase in recent adverse life events in people with psychosis compared to people without psychosis, measured between 3 months and 3.6 years prior. Conversely, moderate to…

Childhood adversity

What is childhood adversity? Childhood adversities encompass a range of childhood experiences, including loss of a close relative, parental separation, bullying, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional abuse, and neglect. The nature, timing, severity, and duration of exposure are likely to influence mental health, however any evidence that childhood adversity directly causes psychosis or schizophrenia is controversial. Firstly, psychotic disorders may be secondary to comorbid affective, substance use, personality, or post-traumatic stress disorders, all of which have been linked to early adversities, and all are common in those with a psychotic mental illness. Another difficulty is accurately measuring childhood adversity, as…


How is migration related to schizophrenia? The term “migrant” usually refers to first generation migrants; people with a foreign birth place, however some studies also include their locally-born offspring, or second generation migrants. Any association found between migrant status and increased risk of schizophrenia has stimulated a great deal of research and explanatory hypotheses, including the stress relating to migration and settling into a new country, and possible issues with discrimination. Other explanations include a tendency for at-risk individuals to migrate, and differences in underlying genetic vulnerability across cultures. What is the evidence regarding migration as a risk factor for…

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