Topics tagged with "Schizophrenia and substance use"

Treatments for dual diagnosis

What is dual diagnosis? Many treatments have been targeted to improving symptom severity for people suffering schizophrenia in combination with substance use problems. Studies of dual diagnosis often investigate the effectiveness or availability of treatments for improving outcomes relating to either diagnosis, for example symptom severity, social function, quality of life, substance use, or cognitive outcomes. What is the evidence for pharmaceutical treatments for dual diagnosis? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests olanzapine may be effective for reducing cocaine use in people with schizophrenia. Low quality evidence is unable to determine the benefits of risperidone for cannabis use, risperidone, haloperidol,…

For dual diagnosis

What is dual diagnosis? Dual diagnosis is a term that refers to having both a mental illness and a substance abuse problem. Studies of dual diagnosis investigate the effectiveness and availability of treatments for improving outcomes relating to either diagnosis, such as symptoms, functioning, quality of life, substance use, or cognitive problems. What is the evidence for the effectiveness of therapy for dual diagnosis? Moderate quality evidence suggests a medium-sized benefit of motivational interviewing with or without cognitive behavioural therapy for reducing the amount of cannabis used, but no benefit for reducing frequency of cannabis use. There may also be…

Anticraving agents

What are adjunctive anticraving medications? Anticraving medications includes naltrexone (an opioid receptor antagonist), which aims to reduce craving for and use of substances. What is the evidence for anticraving medications? Low quality evidence is unclear as to the benefit of anticraving agents such as naltrexone for improving substance dependence in people with schizophrenia. September 2019

Substance use

How is substance use relevant to schizophrenia? Substance use is more common in people with schizophrenia than in the general population. What is the evidence for substance use as a risk factor for schizophrenia? Tobacco Moderate quality evidence finds the prevalence of smoking in people with first-episode psychosis is around 60%. Moderate to low quality evidence suggests people with first-episode psychosis smoked tobacco for an average of 5.3 years prior to the first psychotic episode. Compared to general population smoking rates, there is a large effect of more smoking in males with schizophrenia, and a medium-sized effect of more smoking…

Drug and alcohol use

What is comorbid drug and alcohol use?  Drug and alcohol misuse, abuse or dependence are concerns for people with schizophrenia due to the association with poor clinical and social outcomes, including high rates of suicide, HIV, homelessness, aggression and incarceration. Moreover, substance use places additional burden on patients, families, psychiatric services, and government resources due to high rates of treatment non-adherence and relapse. This topic covers outcomes for people with schizophrenia and comorbid substance use (termed ‘dual diagnosis’). What is the evidence on outcomes for people with schizophrenia and comorbid drug and alcohol use? High quality evidence shows a small…

Drug and alcohol use

How is drug and alcohol use related to schizophrenia?  Drug and alcohol use, abuse or dependence are concerns due to the association with high rates of suicide, HIV, homelessness, aggression and incarceration. Moreover, comorbid substance use places additional burden on patients, families, psychiatric services, and government resources due to high rates of treatment non-adherence and relapse. What is the evidence for comorbid drug and alcohol use? Moderate quality evidence shows the lifetime prevalence of any illicit drug misuse, abuse or dependence in people with schizophrenia ranges between 17% for those in rehabilitation and long-term settings, to 70% in community health…

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