Topics tagged with "Schizophrenia diagnosis"

What is schizophrenia and how is it diagnosed?

Schizophrenia occurs in about one percent of the general population  Following a diagnosis of schizophrenia, and with effective treatment, up to 80% of people report good or intermediate outcomes. Three main symptom clusters have been identified: Positive symptoms Positive symptoms are a well-documented feature of schizophrenia and are arguably the most recognisable and conspicuous, and can cause extreme distress to the individual. They include hallucinations, which are defined as a perceptual experience that occurs in the absence of any external sensory input, and are most commonly auditory, although they can occur in any modality. Delusions are also positive symptoms, and involve…

Schizoaffective disorder

What is schizoaffective disorder?  Schizoaffective disorder is on the schizophrenia spectrum of illnesses. Diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder requires schizophrenia-like symptoms of psychosis, in addition to affective/mood symptoms such as depression. There is some debate as to whether schizoaffective disorder represents a unique diagnosis or an intermediary between schizophrenia and mood disorders. There are also considerable differences between different diagnostic criteria regarding the definition of schizoaffective disorder; particularly the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) criteria. Specifically, the ICD and also the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) require simultaneous and equally prominent presence of psychotic and…

Schizophrenia

How is schizophrenia diagnosed?  Diagnostic scales are widely used within clinical practice and research settings. These scales have been extensively validated and provide a set of criteria that is used to define and diagnose an illness. Two key examples include the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Both the DSM and ICD criteria are regularly updated, and the most recent versions are the DSM-5 and the ICD-10. For a DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia, at least two symptoms need to have been present for at least six months, and…

Outcome assessment tools

How can outcome assessment tools be used? Standardised assessment tools are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning and quality of life. The quality of these tools can be measured in various ways. ‘Reliability’ refers to the reproducibility of an instrument’s results across different assessors, settings and times. ‘Construct validity’ is the extent to which an instrument measures the theoretical construct it was designed to measure. This involves ‘convergent validity’ (the degree of correlation between different scales measuring the same construct); and ‘divergent validity’ (the lack of correlation between scales measuring different constructs). ‘Known groups’ validity’ is…

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