Mental disorders

This category covers common co-occurring mental disorders, including anxiety and personality disorders.

Anxiety disorders

What are anxiety disorders? Anxiety disorders include generalised anxiety disorder, which is characterised by continuous and excessive worrying for six months or more. Specific phobias are characterised by anxiety provoked by a feared object or situation, resulting in avoidance. Social phobia is anxiety provoked by social or performance situations. Agoraphobia is anxiety about situations where escape may be difficult or help might not be available. Panic disorder is characterised by a panic attack, which is a distinct episode where a person experiences sudden apprehension and fearfulness, and may experience shortness of breath, palpitations, chest pain or feeling of choking. What…

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

We have not found any systematic reviews on this topic that meet the Library’s inclusion criteria. Pending enough primary studies, we invite reviews on this topic to be conducted. Alternatively we will endeavour to conduct our own review to fill this gap in the Library. April 2019

Dementia

What is dementia? Dementia is characterised by significant cognitive impairment. Symptoms include memory impairment, aphasia (impaired language functioning), apraxia (aberrant movement), agnosia (inability to identify objects, people, sound or smell), and impaired executive functioning (for example, the ability to think abstractly, plan, initiate or stop actions). Other symptoms include behavioural disturbances, anxiety, apathy, delirium, and mood and sleep disturbances. Bipolar disorder is also often associated with cognitive and functional decline however, people with dementia show greater cognitive impairment. What is the evidence for dementia in people with bipolar disorder? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests a medium-sized increased risk of…

Eating disorders

What are eating disorders? Eating disorders include anorexia nervosa, which involves a lack of maintaining normal weight, usually less than 85% of the expected weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight. Bulimia nervosa involves the presence of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviours to prevent weight gain, while binge eating disorder does not involve compensatory behaviour. What is the evidence for eating disorders in people with bipolar disorder? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests the prevalence of any eating disorder in people with bipolar disorder ranges between 3% and 36%. Binge eating disorders are more prevalent (9% to 29%)…

Impusivity-related disorders

What are impusivity-related disorders? Impulsivity-related disorders include; intermittent explosive disorder characterised by uncontrolled fits of extreme anger and violence, pyromania characterised by irresistible urges to light fires, kleptomania characterised by irresistible urges to steal, and conduct disorder characterised by repetitive and persistent behaviours that violate societal rules and the basic rights of other people. Related disorders include; trichotillomania characterised by uncontrollable hair twisting and pulling, skin-picking disorder, pathological gambling, compulsive sexual behaviour and exhibitionism, compulsive buying, internet addiction, video or computer game addiction, food addiction, work addiction, tanning addiction and physical exercise addiction. What is the evidence for impusivity-related disorders?…

Obsessive compulsive disorder

What is obsessive compulsive disorder? Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) involves persistent and intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive actions (compulsions). The DSM-5 (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition) defines obsessions as recurrent and persistent thoughts, urges, or impulses that are experienced as intrusive and unwanted, with associated anxiety or distress. The individual attempts to suppress these obsessions by performing a compulsion; repetitive behaviours (e.g., hand washing, ordering, checking) or thoughts (e.g., praying, counting, repeating words). The obsessions or compulsions are time-consuming and can cause significant impairment in social, occupational, or other areas of functioning. Related disorders include hoarding…

Personality disorders

What are personality disorders? Personality disorders are enduring patterns of behaviours, thoughts and feelings that deviate from social norms. Many people exhibit these behaviours, thoughts or feelings occasionally, but deviations that persist across situations and cause significant distress and impairment are considered disorders. There are a number of different personality disorders. These include; antisocial personality disorder (disregard for the rights of others); schizoid personality disorder (detachment of social interactions and limited emotional expression); schizotypal personality disorder (discomfort of close relationships, cognitive distortions and eccentric behaviour); paranoid personality disorder (distrust and suspiciousness of others); borderline personality disorder (self-harming, difficulty relating to…

Pervasive developmental disorders

What are pervasive developmental disorders? Pervasive developmental disorders are a group of conditions that are characterised by abnormal development in social interactions, communication, behavioural flexibility and repetitive patterns of behaviour and activities. These are core features of autism and are usually apparent by the age of 2 to 4 years. Autism involves impaired socialisation, poor communication and behavioural inflexibility, whereas Asperger’s syndrome involves an absence of an intellectual disability. Pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified shares the socialisation symptoms of autism but allows for atypical presentations. Pervasive developmental disorders affect up to 0.5% of individuals and may co-occur in people…

Post-traumatic stress disorder

What is post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)? The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders’ (DSM-5) criteria for a diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) includes having been exposed to a trauma via direct means (e.g. threats, experience, or witnessing), or indirect means (e.g. learning that a relative or close friend has been exposed to a trauma). For a diagnosis of PTSD, symptoms must last for more than one month and create distress and functioning impairment such as an inability to work, go to school, or socialise. Symptoms include persistently re-experiencing the traumatic event via intrusive thoughts, nightmares, or flashbacks. These…

Somatoform symptom disorder

What is somatoform symptom disorder? Somatic symptoms are defined as medically unexplained bodily sensations or basic physical dysfunctions (including those of appetite, digestion, or sleep) that an individual perceives as worrisome or unpleasant. They may be localised to a particular bodily region, or generalised, as in the case of excessive fatigue or loss of energy. Symptoms are not intentionally produced or feigned. For a diagnosis of somatic symptom disorder, the extent to which a person’s feelings, thoughts, and behaviours about their somatic symptoms must be distressing, excessive or disproportionate, and persist for more than six months. What is the evidence…

NeuRA Libraries

Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.