Body functioning

This category includes information on changes in body functioning in people with bipolar disorder, including movement and sleep disturbances.

Motor dysfunction

What are motor disorders? Movement disorders have been reported in people with bipolar disorder, with tardive dyskinesia among the most commonly reported. This disorder is a ‘hyper-kinetic’ (excessive movement) disorder, characterised by jerky, involuntary movements, usually of the face and/or limbs. Parkinsonism is another movement disorder, which is a ‘hypo-kinetic’ (reduced movement) disorder, characterised by slowness of movement and rigidity. Movement disorders are primarily associated with the use of antipsychotics, however they have also been reported in people who are antipsychotic-naïve. What is the evidence for movement disorders? Low quality evidence is unclear of the prevalence of movement disorders in…

Neurological soft signs

What are neurological soft signs (NSS)? NSS are neurological abnormalities that can be identified by clinical examination using valid and reliable testing measures. They are referred to as ‘soft’ because they are not related to a localised pathological lesion and are not thought to be part of a well-defined neurological syndrome. Categories of NSS are varied but they are commonly grouped into three categories: integrative sensory functioning, motor coordination, and complex motor sequencing. Integrative sensory functioning can include deficits in bilateral extinction (difficulty perceiving stimuli when presented to both hemispheres simultaneously), impaired audio-visual integration, agraphaesthesia (inability to recognise by touch…

Olfactory functioning

What is olfactory functioning? Olfactory functioning is hierarchical and involves lower-order processing (detection of the stimulus) and higher-order processing (discrimination and identification of the stimulus). Measures of olfactory acuity include odor detection, identification, discrimination, intensity, and quality. Odour detection occurs at the lowest chemical concentration needed to register an odourant. Odour identification draws on a person’s knowledge and memory to correctly label the smell. Odour discrimination involves comparing the differences between multiple stimuli, judging odours as pleasant or unpleasant, or comparing the relative concentration of odours. What is the evidence for olfactory functioning? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests poorer…

Sleep disturbance

What is sleep disturbance? People with a mental illness may show disturbances in the amount or quality of sleep they receive. Typically sleep follows a characteristic pattern of four stages, where stage 1 is a state of drowsiness and early sleep; stage 2 comprises the largest component of the sleep cycle and is the first complete loss of awareness of the external environment; stage 3 is a deep, slow-wave sleep; and the fourth stage is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where memorable dreaming and muscle paralysis occurs. Sleep disturbance can be measured in many ways, including the total sleep time,…

NeuRA Libraries

Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.