Trauma characteristics

This category contains topics on the trauma characteristics relating to PTSD. Click on the tabs below to access the evidence, or navigate via the section on the left.
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Abuse and violence

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. These are determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples of exposures are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Traumas can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect the…

Bereavement

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. These are determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) as being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples of exposures are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Traumas can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect the…

Direct vs. indirect exposure

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples include directly being involved in the trauma, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma (indirect exposures). Traumas can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal…

Disasters

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples include direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Traumas can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect an individual’s risk…

Epidemics and pandemics

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples include direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Traumas can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect an individual’s risk…

Imprisonment

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, at least one stressor is required. Stressors as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Stressors can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect the risk of developing PTSD….

Intentional vs. unintentional traumas

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples include directly being involved in the trauma, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Intentional traumas are those that involve the deliberate infliction of harm, while unintentional exposures are those that are not planned. Differences in…

Interpersonal vs. non-interpersonal traumas

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples include directly being involved in the trauma, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Interpersonal traumas are those that involve interaction with other people, such as domestic abuse, while non-interpersonal traumas are those that do not…

Migration and displacement

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, at least one stressor is required. Stressors as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to trauma. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect the risk of developing PTSD. What is the evidence for the risk of PTSD in migrants, asylum…

Moral injury

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, at least one stressor is required. Stressors as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to trauma. This summary table presents the evidence for PTSD following moral injury. Moral injury involves transgressions to moral beliefs and expectations that are associated with strong emotions related to the…

Physical injury and illness

What are trauma characteristics? Trauma characteristics, along with personal characteristics, are factors that influence the risk of a person developing PTSD. What is the evidence for risk of PTSD in people exposed to physical illness and injury? Moderate quality evidence found the prevalence of PTSD following a coronavirus infection was around 29-32%. Rates of PTSD were higher in female coronavirus patients, in infected healthcare workers, in patients with a previous physical illness, in patients with avascular necrosis, functional impairment, pain, and a sense of lack of control. Rates were highest when measured during coronavirus outbreaks, in patients with MERS rather…

Pregnancy and childbirth

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to trauma. Trauma characteristics, along with personal characteristics, influence the risk of developing PTSD following exposure. What is the evidence for risk of PTSD following or during pregnancy and childbirth? Moderate…

Road traffic accidents

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Traumas can also be encountered in the course of professional duties. Differences in trauma characteristics, along with differences in personal characteristics, may affect the risk of developing PTSD….

Time post-trauma

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to trauma. Trauma characteristics, along with personal characteristics, influence the risk of developing PTSD following exposure. What is the evidence for risk of PTSD at varying time intervals post-trauma exposure? Moderate…

Trauma severity

What are trauma characteristics? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, and actual or threatened sexual violence. Trauma characteristics, along with personal characteristics, influence the risk of developing PTSD. What is the evidence for risk of PTSD after exposure to varying levels of trauma severity? Moderate quality evidence found people with advanced-stage cancer had higher rates of PTSD than those in earlier stages (11.4% vs. 4.2%)….

War and terrorism

What is prevalence? For a person to be diagnosed with PTSD, exposure to at least one trauma is required. Traumas as determined by the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) include threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, and actual or threatened sexual violence. Trauma characteristics, along with personal characteristics, influence the risk of developing PTSD. What is the evidence for the risk of PTSD in people exposed to war and terrorism? Moderate to high quality evidence finds a large effect of more post-traumatic stress symptoms in World War 2 holocaust survivors than in…

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Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.