Body functioning

This category includes information on changes in body functioning in people with schizophrenia, including movement and sleep disturbances.

Cortical release signs

We have not found any systematic reviews on this topic that meet our inclusion criteria. Pending enough primary studies, we invite reviews on this topic to be conducted. Alternatively we will endeavour to conduct our own review to fill this gap in the Library. October 2020

Functional laterality

What is functional laterality?  Functional laterality refers to a natural asymmetry in left or right-side dominance, for example in terms of handedness, or brain function. Handedness refers to the preference for using one hand over the other for certain tasks. Right-handed people show increased dexterity in their right hand, left-handed people show increased ability the left hand. People may also be ‘mixed’ handed and show different hand preference for different tasks. Listening tasks can be used to assess language lateralisation. People with schizophrenia may show differences in handedness or footedness, as well as altered visual and auditory dominance that may…

Movement disorders

What are movement disorders?  Movement disorders have been reported in people with schizophrenia, with tardive dyskinesia among the most commonly reported. This disorder is a ‘hyper-kinetic’ (excessive movement) disorder, characterised by jerky, involuntary movements, usually of the face and/or limbs. Parkinsonism is another movement disorder associated with schizophrenia, and is a ‘hypo-kinetic’ (reduced movement) disorder, characterised by slowness of movement and rigidity. Movement disorders are primarily associated with the use of antipsychotic medications, however they have also been reported in people who are antipsychotic-naïve. What is the evidence for movement disorders in schizophrenia? Moderate to high quality evidence suggests a…

Neurological soft signs

What are neurological soft signs? Neurological soft signs (NSS) are neurological abnormalities that can be identified by clinical examination using valid and reliable testing measures. They are referred to as ‘soft’ because they not related to a specific brain area, or part of a defined syndrome. Categories of NSS are commonly grouped into three categories; integrative sensory functioning, motor coordination, and complex motor sequencing. Integrative sensory functioning includes impairments in sensory perception such as audio-visual integration or tactile recognition. Motor coordination involves general coordination, balance and gait. Complex motor sequencing involves complex motor tasks, such as repetitive alternating hand positions….

Olfactory functioning

What is olfactory functioning?  The olfactory system is the sensory system used to interpret and perceive smell. Olfactory functioning is hierarchical and involves lower-order processing (detection of the stimulus) and higher-order processing (discrimination and identification of the stimulus). Odour detection occurs at the lowest chemical concentration needed to register an odourant. Odour discrimination involves comparing the differences between multiple stimuli, judging odours as pleasant or unpleasant, or comparing the relative concentration of odours. Odour identification draws on a person’s knowledge and memory to correctly label the smell. What is the evidence for altered olfactory functioning in schizophrenia? Moderate to high…

Pain sensitivity

What is pain sensitivity? Pain is defined by the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) as “an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience associated with actual or potential tissue damage” and pain is perceived as both a sensory and emotional experience. There is an important distinction between the body’s responses to pain (nociception) and the subjective experience of pain. Measured outcomes of pain perception include pain reactivity, sensory threshold, pain threshold, and pain tolerance, as well as self-reporting of the pain experience. What is the evidence for pain sensitivity? Moderate to high quality evidence suggests schizophrenia is associated with…

Sleep disturbance

What is sleep disturbance? Typically, sleep follows a characteristic pattern of four stages, where stage 1 is a state of drowsiness and early sleep, stage 2 comprises the largest component of the sleep cycle and is the first complete loss of awareness of the external environment, stage 3 is a deep slow-wave sleep, and the fourth stage is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where muscle paralysis and memorable dreaming occurs. Sleep disturbances include changes in sleep time, sleep latency (the length of time it takes from full wakefulness to sleep) and sleep efficiency (the amount of time spent asleep while…

Temperature regulation

What is temperature regulation? Changes in the homeostatic regulation of body temperature can involve increased or decreased body temperature in a neutral environment (baseline temperature), altered response to a temperature stimulus (heat or cold stress), changes to the normal differences between morning and nighttime body temperatures (diurnal and circadian variation), variations in the range of typical body temperature changes during the day, and changes to typical differences between core and peripheral body temperatures. What is the evidence for temperature regulation? In antipsychotic-free patients, moderate to low quality evidence suggests baseline temperature is reduced, there is less daily variation in temperature,…

Voice patterns

How are voice patterns relevant to schizophrenia? Some people with schizophrenia display atypical voice patterns. Some atypical voice patterns have been associated with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, including blunted affect (lack of vocal intonation) and alogia (poverty of speech). Clarifying vocal abnormalities in people with schizophrenia may help support the assessment of cognitive and clinical features related to the disorder. What is the evidence for changes in voice patterns? Moderate quality evidence found large effects of longer pauses and less spoken time in people with schizophrenia compared to people without schizophrenia. There were medium-sized effects of lower speech rate…

NeuRA Libraries

Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.