This category covers other pharmaceutical topics such as cost of treatments, dose, mode of administration, and polypharmacy.

Antipsychotic polypharmacy

What is antipsychotic polypharmacy? Antipsychotic combination treatment, also called antipsychotic polypharmacy, has been utilised in clinical practice for patients who are unresponsive or partially responsive to antipsychotic monotherapies. Please also see the treatments for medication-resistant schizophrenia topic for augmentation with other pharmaceutical agents. What is the evidence for antipsychotic polypharmacy? Moderate to high quality evidence suggests a small effect of less discontinuation for any reason, and moderate quality evidence suggests better clinical response with antipsychotic polypharmacy versus monotherapy. Moderate quality evidence suggests antipsychotic polypharmacy is most often associated with the use of first generation antipsychotics, inpatient status, and a diagnosis…


What are treatment costs?  The burden of schizophrenia includes direct costs, indirect costs, and intangible costs. Direct costs are estimated by the amount of services used and the price of treatment. Indirect costs are estimated by the averaged reduced future earnings of both patients and caregivers. Intangible costs are those that may be associated with the illness, such as trauma and depression. This topic presents evidence on direct pharmaceutical costs, including cost of drug treatments and related mental health care services. What is the evidence for the costs of treating schizophrenia? Moderate or moderate to low quality evidence suggests the…


Why is antipsychotic dose important? Antipsychotic dose comparison is important both in clinical practice and for research purposes. The aim is to determine the lowest dose range that is sufficient to produce a satisfactory clinical response, while avoiding unnecessary side effects. Near-maximal effective dose is the highest dose range just before efficacy plateaus. Minimum effective dose is the lowest dose that is significantly more effective than placebo. What is the evidence for antipsychotic dose? Moderate quality evidence suggests a small to medium-sized effect of fewer relapses in patients receiving standard dose antipsychotics compared to patients receiving very low dose antipsychotics…

Mode of administration

What is mode of administration? Studies have shown that about 80% of patients relapse to psychosis within 5 years of initial treatment. This is often due to lack of adherence to antipsychotic medications. Long-acting injectable antipsychotics are a treatment option for patients who are not adhering to treatment or who do not remember to take their oral preparations. What is the evidence for mode of administration? High quality evidence shows long-acting injectable second generation antipsychotics are more effect than placebo injections for symptom improvement. Moderate to low quality evidence suggests the reduction in hospitalisation rates after commencing antipsychotic treatment is…

Placebo response

What is placebo response? Placebo effects in pharmaceutical trials vary widely, with response rates varying from 20% to 70%. The placebo response can include improvement in symptoms and even adverse reactions that have been associated with the antipsychotic being tested. Placebo effects can substantially influence conclusions about the efficacy of antipsychotic medications as they reduce any differences in response to the antipsychotic and the placebo. What is the evidence for placebo response? Moderate to high quality evidence suggests there is a significant positive placebo response over 12 weeks, which may be most apparent in studies with more efficacious drugs, younger…

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Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.