Memory

What is memory? 

Memory involves encoding, storage and retrieval of information. Short-term memory is the ability to remember information after several seconds or minutes and long-term memory is the ability to remember information over a longer duration. Working memory involves information being temporarily held as well as manipulated. Episodic memory is long-term memory for autobiographical events. Semantic memory involves memory for general facts, prospective memory involves memory for future actions, and retrospective memory is memory for past events.

What is the evidence for memory?

Compared to controls, moderate to high quality evidence finds medium to large effects of poorer short-term, long-term, working, episodic, prospective, and memory binding in people with schizophrenia
Compared to people with affective psychoses (e.g. bipolar I disorder), high quality evidence shows a medium-sized effect of poorer visual and verbal delayed memory, and verbal immediate memory, while moderate quality evidence finds poorer verbal working memory in people with schizophrenia.

Moderate to high quality evidence shows small to medium-sized associations between more severe negative and disorganised symptoms and poorer visual and verbal memory, with moderate quality evidence also suggesting a weak association with poorer executive working memory. There were small to medium-sized associations between poorer prospective memory and more severe general psychopathology, increased medication dose, longer duration of illness, increasing age, and lower education and IQ.

Moderate quality evidence suggests people taking olanzapine or risperidone show improvement in working memory after treatment, while people taking clozapine or quetiapine show no improvement. Moderate quality evidence suggests people taking olanzapine or risperidone show improvement on working memory with treatment, while people taking clozapine or quetiapine show no improvement. People taking olanzapine, clozapine, risperidone or haloperidol show improvement on delayed recall with treatment, while people taking quetiapine show no improvement.

Moderate to high quality evidence from long-term studies finds a small effect of poorer working memory in people at clinical high risk for psychosis who transitioned to psychosis compared to people at clinical high risk for psychosis who did not transition to psychosis.

August 2019

Last updated at: 11:17 pm, 22nd August 2019
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