Topics tagged with "Anxiety"

Anxiety disorders

What are anxiety disorders in PTSD? Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterised by excessive fear or worrying. Anxiety disorders include generalised anxiety disorder, which is characterised by continuous and excessive worrying for six months or more. Specific phobias are characterised by anxiety provoked by a feared object/situation, resulting in avoidance. Social phobia is anxiety provoked by social or performance situations. Agoraphobia is anxiety about situations where escape may be difficult or help might not be available. Panic disorder is characterised by a panic attack, which is a distinct episode where a person experiences sudden apprehension and fearfulness…

Acupuncture

What is acupuncture for PTSD? Acupuncture is practiced as an accepted health care model in China, Korea and Japan. Traditionally, it involves the stimulation of specific points (acupoints) by inserting needles into the skin. Electro-acupuncture is similar in that the same points are stimulated with needles inserted on specific points along the body. It uses two needles attached to an electrical device that generates continuous electric pulses. These pass from one needle to the other with varying frequency and intensity dictated by the condition. Administration is usually for no more than 30 minutes at a time. Laser acupuncture is essentially…

Anxiety

How are anxiety symptoms related to PTSD? Many people with PTSD experience worrying, fear, and sleep problems. These may disrupt daily functioning, but may not meet the criteria for an anxiety disorder. They may be associated directly with the trauma itself, such as being diagnosed with a physical illness or being exposed to forced displacement or war. They may also be aggravated by other, core symptoms of PTSD, including emotional distress, physical reactivity after exposure to reminders, and upsetting memories, nightmares, and flashbacks. This topic concentrates on the presence and severity of subclinical anxiety symptoms in people with PTSD. Please also see…

Assessment tools

Assessment tools

What are assessment tools for PTSD? Standardised assessment tools for PTSD are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. They are often used within a controlled research environment, but high-quality assessment tools are also useful in practice for both clinical management and outcome prediction. What is the evidence for outcome assessment tools for PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds a model comprising 4-factors of intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria/numbing yielded the best fit for clustering PTSD symptoms. Assessment measures for this model included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Modified PTSD Symptom Scale,…

Anxiety disorders

What are anxiety disorders in bipolar disorder? Comorbid anxiety disorders are common in people with bipolar disorder. Generalised anxiety disorder is characterised by continuous and excessive worrying for six months or more. Specific phobias are characterised by anxiety provoked by a feared object or situation, resulting in avoidance. Social phobia is anxiety provoked by social or performance situations. Agoraphobia is anxiety about situations where escape may be difficult or where help might not be available. Panic disorder is characterised by a panic attack, which is a distinct episode where a person experiences sudden apprehension and fearfulness, and may experience shortness…

Bipolar disorder diagnosis

Diagnosis

How is a diagnosis of bipolar disorder made? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of mania or less severe hypomania, and depression. Bipolar I disorder is determined by the existence of mania, which may include psychotic features, while bipolar II disorder is determined by less severe hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder is an overall milder form of bipolar disorder, however symptoms occur fairly often and constantly.  A manic episode is at least one week of extremely high spirited or irritableness most of the time. There are changes in normal behaviour. These include exaggerated self-esteem/grandiosity, less sleep, talking more, talking loudly and quickly, being…

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