Topics tagged with "Children and adolescents"

Therapies for children and adolescents

What is psychotherapy for PTSD in children and adolescents? Traumatic events are highly prevalent in childhood and adolescence. PTSD is often chronic and has immense personal and social costs, and the prognosis for recovery without adequate treatment is poor. Therefore, early and effective treatment is important. What is the evidence for psychotherapy for PTSD in children and adolescents? Moderate quality evidence found a large improvement in PTSD symptoms with psychological treatments by the end of treatment, and a medium-sized improvement by six months post-treatment when compared to untreated or waitlist controls. Compared to treatment as usual or active controls, there…

Assessment tools

Assessment tools

What are assessment tools for PTSD? Standardised assessment tools for PTSD are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. They are often used within a controlled research environment, but high-quality assessment tools are also useful in practice for both clinical management and outcome prediction. What is the evidence for outcome assessment tools for PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds a model comprising 4-factors of intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria/numbing yielded the best fit for clustering PTSD symptoms. Assessment measures for this model included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Modified PTSD Symptom Scale,…

Pediatric bipolar disorder

What is childhood bipolar disorder? Roughly 2% of youth under the age of 18 experience bipolar disorder. For 55 to 60% of adults with bipolar disorder, the pathology begins in childhood and adolescence with displays of subthreshold forms or prodromal signs of the disorder during this time. An earlier age at the first episode of bipolar disorder is associated with a more severe clinical course. What is the evidence for childhood bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence shows the most common mania symptoms reported in youth with bipolar disorder are (in decreasing order) increased energy, irritability, mood lability, distractibility, goal-directed activity,…

Therapies for children

What is childhood bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric illness that can have devastating effects on afflicted individuals and their families. It is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide, and prevalence is estimated to be around 1% in the general adult population. The age of onset of bipolar disorder typically occurs during late adolescence or early adulthood, although onset can occur in childhood. Early-onset bipolar disorder is commonly associated with impairment in multiple domains, including increased risk of psychiatric hospitalisation, antisocial behaviour, addictions and suicidal behaviour. The need to optimise treatments for for these patients for whom…

Treatments for children

What is childhood bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a chronic psychiatric illness that can have devastating effects on individuals and their families. It is the sixth leading cause of disability worldwide, with prevalence estimated to be around 1% in the general adult population. The age of onset of bipolar disorder typically occurs during early adulthood, although onset can occur in childhood or adolescence. Bipolar disorder in childhood and adolescence is commonly associated with impairment in multiple domains, including increased risk of psychiatric hospitalisation, antisocial behaviour, addictions, and suicidal behaviour. There is a need to optimise treatments for childhood patients for…

Cognition in children with bipolar disorder

What is cognition in children with bipolar disorder? Deficits across various cognitive domains are a common feature of bipolar disorder. These are strongly associated with difficulties in activities of daily living. Early age at onset of the illness is associated with more severe symptoms and poor prognosis than later age at onset. Identifying cognitive deficits in children contributes to the development of specific treatments and rehabilitation approaches. What is the evidence regarding cognition in children with bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence finds large impairments in global cognition, verbal and visual learning and memory, and working memory in youth with bipolar…

Bipolar disorder diagnosis

Diagnosis

How is a diagnosis of bipolar disorder made? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of mania or less severe hypomania, and depression. Bipolar I disorder is determined by the existence of mania, which may include psychotic features, while bipolar II disorder is determined by less severe hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder is an overall milder form of bipolar disorder, however symptoms occur fairly often and constantly.  A manic episode is at least one week of extremely high spirited or irritableness most of the time. There are changes in normal behaviour. These include exaggerated self-esteem/grandiosity, less sleep, talking more, talking loudly and quickly, being…

Therapies for childhood onset and early onset schizophrenia

What is childhood and early-onset schizophrenia? Childhood-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset prior to the age of 13 years, and early-onset schizophrenia describes schizophrenia between the ages of 13 and 17 years. What is the evidence for psychosocial treatments for childhood and early-onset schizophrenia? Moderate quality evidence finds supportive therapy is better than cognitive behavioural therapy for improving symptoms, however cognitive behavioural therapy is better than supportive therapy for improving insight in children with early-onset schizophrenia. Education about the illness may be beneficial for improving symptoms and functioning. Moderate to low quality evidence finds cognitive remediation can improve…

Medications for childhood and early-onset schizophrenia

What is childhood and early-onset schizophrenia? Childhood-onset schizophrenia is defined as schizophrenia with onset prior to the age of 13 years, and early-onset schizophrenia describes schizophrenia onset between the ages of 13 and 17 years. What is the evidence for pharmaceutical treatments for childhood and early-onset schizophrenia? Compared to first-generation antipsychotics, moderate quality evidence finds a small to medium-sized benefit of second-generation antipsychotics for global and mental state in children and adolescents with schizophrenia. There was greater improvement with standard dose than low-dose antipsychotics, although there are more side effects with standard doses. Moderate quality evidence finds clozapine was the…

Childhood and early-onset schizophrenia

What is childhood and early-onset schizophrenia? Childhood-onset schizophrenia has an onset prior to the age of 13 years, and early-onset schizophrenia has an onset between the ages of 13 and 17 years. What is the evidence on childhood and early-onset schizophrenia? Moderate quality evidence suggests poorer long-term functioning in children and adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia compared to other psychiatric disorders. August 2020 Image: ©Brian Jackson – Fotolia – stock.adobe.com

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