Topics tagged with "Diagnosis"

Diagnosis

How is a PTSD diagnosis made? A PTSD diagnosis requires exposure to at least one trauma. Traumas include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing a trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed. At least one “intrusion” symptom is required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include unwanted and upsetting memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and emotional distress or physical reactions following reminders. At least one “avoidance” symptom is also required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include avoidance of trauma-related thoughts or feelings,…

Bipolar disorder diagnosis

Diagnosis

How is a diagnosis of bipolar disorder made? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of mania or less severe hypomania, and depression. Bipolar I disorder is determined by the existence of mania, which may include psychotic features, while bipolar II disorder is determined by less severe hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder is an overall milder form of bipolar disorder, however symptoms occur fairly often and constantly.  A manic episode is at least one week of extremely high spirited or irritableness most of the time. There are changes in normal behaviour. These include exaggerated self-esteem/grandiosity, less sleep, talking more, talking loudly and quickly, being…

Schizoaffective disorder

What is schizoaffective disorder?  Schizoaffective disorder is on the schizophrenia spectrum of illnesses. Diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder requires schizophrenia-like symptoms of psychosis, in addition to affective/mood symptoms such as depression. There is some debate as to whether schizoaffective disorder represents a unique diagnosis or an intermediary between schizophrenia and mood disorders. There are also considerable differences between different diagnostic criteria regarding the definition of schizoaffective disorder; particularly the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) criteria. Specifically, the ICD and also the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) require simultaneous and equally prominent presence of psychotic and…

Schizophrenia diagnosis

Schizophrenia

How is a diagnosis of schizophrenia made?  Diagnostic scales are widely used within clinical practice and research settings. These scales have been extensively validated and provide a set of criteria that is used to define and diagnose an illness. Two key examples include the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the World Health Organization’s International Classification of Diseases (ICD). Both the DSM and ICD criteria are regularly updated, and the most recent versions are the DSM-5 and the ICD-10. For a DSM-5 diagnosis of schizophrenia, at least two symptoms need to have been present for at least…

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