Topics tagged with "Early detection"

Therapies for prevention of PTSD

What is psychotherapy for the prevention of PTSD? Early intervention models suggest psychological interventions given to an individual exposed to a traumatic event may prevent the onset of trauma-related symptoms. Cognitive therapies are based on the theory that an individual’s perception of a situation influences his or her emotional response to it. They aim to help people identify distorted thinking and to modify existing beliefs. Cognitive processing therapy is a type of cognitive therapy that involves psychoeducation, written accounts about the traumatic event, and cognitive restructuring to address beliefs about the event’s meaning and its implications. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)…

All pharmaceutical treatments for prevention of PTSD

What are medications for the prevention of PTSD? Scientific understanding of the neurobiological changes occurring during PTSD onset shows memory consolidation appears particularly vulnerable to disruption in the first six hours after trauma, making this a crucial period for intervention for prevention of PTSD. This technical commentary presents the evidence on pharmaceutical interventions administered during this period. Please also see the psychotherapy for prevention of PTSD topic. What is the evidence on medications for the prevention of PTSD? Hydrocortisone is a glucocorticoid, which attenuates heightened fear response through increased removal of fear-inducing memories. Moderate to low quality evidence found a…

Therapies for high-risk groups

What is high risk for bipolar disorder? People deemed at high risk for bipolar disorder can be identified by having a family history of the disorder and/or having subclinical symptoms of depression and/or mania that are not severe enough for a diagnosis. Reducing the development of severe symptoms may increase the probability of good long-term outcomes. The course of bipolar disorder and its treatment response tends to worsen over time, highlighting the importance of early intervention. Over the last 15 years, a biopsychosocial framework for bipolar disorder has obtained growing recognition and an increasingly multimodal treatment approach has emerged. Accordingly,…

Therapies for first-episode bipolar disorder

What is first-episode bipolar disorder? The course of bipolar disorder and its treatment response tends to worsen over time, highlighting the importance of early intervention. As bipolar disorder cannot be diagnosed on the basis of depression alone, the onset of a manic episode may indicate an underlying bipolar disorder. Interventions for first-episode psychosis or depression have begun to be extended to those with bipolar disorder, however such interventions need to be tailored to suit people with first-episode bipolar disorder, and research is sparse for these patients. What is the evidence for psychosocial treatments for first-episode bipolar disorder? Low quality evidence…

Treatments for high-risk groups

We have not found any systematic reviews on pharmaceutical treatments for high-risk groups for bipolar disorder that meet the inclusion criteria. Pending enough primary studies, we invite reviews on this topic to be conducted. Alternatively, we will endeavour to conduct our own review to fill this gap in the Library. July 2020

Psychotherapy

Early detection

Why is early detection of bipolar disorder important? Early detection of bipolar disorder can prevent or delay the onset of the disorder, and improve clinical outcomes in people who develop it. What is the evidence regarding early detection of bipolar disorder? Moderate to high quality evidence suggests large effects of having psychotic symptoms or a family history of bipolar disorder as risk factors for transition to bipolar disorder in people with major depression. There was a medium-sized effect of higher risk of transition to bipolar disorder with early age of onset of depression, and a small effect of having a…

Medications and therapies for high-risk groups

This topic includes both pharmaceutical and psychosocial treatments. What are high-risk groups? A key target of early intervention is “indicated prevention” for individuals at high risk of psychosis who have been identified with early signs of the disorder, but do not meet any diagnostic criteria. There are two key approaches for identifying people with early signs. The first approach is based on Huber’s Basic Symptoms, which focuses on a detailed way of describing phenomenological (subjective) disturbances in the domains of perception, cognition, language, motor function, will, initiative and level of energy, and stress tolerance. Because the basic symptoms refer only…

Medications for first-episode psychosis

What is first-episode psychosis? People with a first episode of psychosis experience distressing symptoms such as unusual beliefs or abnormal behaviour (positive symptoms) and/or withdrawal or loss of interest in work or school (negative symptoms). Early intervention programs for schizophrenia and psychosis often combine many elements comprising both pharmaceutical and psychosocial therapies, and may involve enriched therapies that are tailored to an individual’s needs. The conclusions presented here are based on group data, and as such individual treatment programs need to be tailored by trained clinicians. Individual response to treatment can vary in terms of both symptoms and adverse effects….

Early detection

What is early detection of psychosis? Early detection refers to the correct identification of individuals who are at high risk of developing schizophrenia, with an emphasis on the development of frank psychosis. Several assessment tools have been constructed to effectively identify such individuals. Sensitivity of an assessment tool refers to the proportion of people who develop psychosis that were previously identified by the assessment tool as being at high risk. Specificity is the proportion of people who do not develop psychosis that were previously identified as not being at high risk. Assessment tools therefore aim to have both high sensitivity…

NeuRA Libraries

Title Colour Legend:
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Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.