Topics tagged with "Extrapyramidal symptoms"

Parkinson’s disease

What is Parkinson’s disease in bipolar disorder? People with bipolar disorder often have increased rates of co-occurring disorders. The neurotransmitter dopamine may be dysfunctional in both disorders. Moreover, medications used to treat bipolar disorder can induce Parkinson’s symptoms including bradykinesia, resting tremor, rigidity, and postural instability. What is the evidence for Parkinson’s disease? Moderate quality evidence suggests a medium-sized increased risk of Parkinson’s disease in people with bipolar disorder compared to people without the disorder. The risk is higher in studies with follow-up periods of less than nine years than in studies with follow-up periods of more than nine years….

Motor dysfunction

What are movement disorders? Movement disorders have been reported in people with bipolar disorder, with tardive dyskinesia among the most commonly reported. This disorder is a ‘hyper-kinetic’ (excessive movement) disorder, characterised by jerky, involuntary movements, usually of the face and/or limbs. Parkinsonism is another movement disorder, which is a ‘hypo-kinetic’ (reduced movement) disorder, characterised by slowness of movement and rigidity. Movement disorders are primarily associated with the use of antipsychotics, however they have also been reported in people who are antipsychotic-naïve. What is the evidence for movement disorders in people with bipolar disorder? Moderate to low quality evidence finds the…


What are extrapyramidal side effects in people with schizophrenia? Extrapyramidal side effects include dyskinesias; repetitive, involuntary, and purposeless body or facial movements. Parkinsonism may occur, involving cogwheel muscle rigidity, pill-rolling tremor and reduced or slowed movements. Akathisia involves motor restlessness, especially in the legs, and dystonias are muscle contractions causing unusual twisting of parts of the body, most often in the neck. These side effects are caused by the dopamine receptor antagonist action of antipsychotics. What is the evidence for extrapyramidal side effects? Overall prevalence rate Moderate quality evidence suggests the overall prevalence rate of tardive dyskinesia is around 25%,…

Medications for movement disorders

What are movement disorders? Movement disorders such as extrapyramidal symptoms are common side effects of many antipsychotic medications. Extrapyramidal symptoms include tardive dyskinesia, a severe and chronic condition involving repetitive, involuntary movements, most commonly occurring around the mouth and face. Akathisia is characterised by a feeling of restlessness and movements such as shuffling of the legs, pacing, rocking from foot to foot, or the inability to sit down or stand still. Dystonia involves muscular spasms and abnormal postures. Medications prescribed to treat the side effects of antipsychotic drugs increase adherence to antipsychotics, which reduces the risk of psychotic relapse. What…

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