Topics tagged with "General cognition"

Depression

Negative thoughts and mood

What are negative thoughts and mood in PTSD? For a diagnosis of PTSD, there needs to be at least two “negative alterations in cognitions and mood”. These include negative thoughts or feelings that began or worsened after the trauma, an inability to recall key features of the trauma, overly negative thoughts and assumptions about oneself or the world, exaggerated blame of self or others for causing the trauma, negative affect (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame), decreased interest in activities, feeling isolated, and difficulty experiencing positive affect. What is the evidence for negative thoughts and mood in PTSD? Moderate…

Memory

What is memory in PTSD? Memory involves encoding, storage and retrieval of information. Short-term memory is the ability to remember information after several seconds or minutes; and long-term memory is the ability to remember information over a longer duration. Semantic memory is memory for general facts, episodic memory is memory for personal events, prospective memory is memory for future actions, and retrospective memory is memory for past events. Working memory involves information being temporarily held as well as manipulated. What is the evidence for memory in PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds small to medium-sized effects of poorer memory in people…

Learning

What is learning ability in PTSD? Learning is the ability to acquire, or change existing knowledge, behaviours, or skills. This process may be disrupted in people with PTSD. There are two distinct forms of learning. The first is explicit (or declarative) learning, which occurs during a high level of consciousness regarding specific learnt content, for example, memorising information for an exam. The second is Implicit (or procedural) learning, which is less conscious and refers to learning that is gained from task performance, for example, juggling. Explicit verbal learning can be measured with the Hopkins Verbal Learning test, the California Verbal…

Cognition

Information processing

What is information processing in PTSD? Information processing may be disrupted in people with PTSD. It can be assessed using various tests that assess general processing and speed. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) digit symbol coding test presents participants with paired numbers and symbols and when shown several numbers, participants must write down the missing corresponding symbols as quickly as possible. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST) requires an ability to shift cognitive sets; participants are told to match stimulus cards containing varying coloured shapes, based first on colour, then quantity, then design. The participant is then given additional…

General cognition

What is general cognition in PTSD? Overall cognitive functioning may be disrupted in people with PTSD. Intelligence quotient (IQ) is derived from standardised tests used to measure general cognitive functioning. IQ is most commonly measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). The WAIS is designed to measure all aspects of cognitive functioning and is divided into subtests measuring verbal IQ (verbal comprehension and working memory) and non-verbal IQ (perceptual organisation and processing speed). Other tests used to assess IQ include the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), which assesses cognitive impairment; the National Adult Reading Test (NART), which assesses premorbid intelligence;…

Cognitive failures

How are cognitive failures related to PTSD? Cognitive failures or “slips” are experienced by everyone from time to time and represent a brief lapse in concentration in real world settings. They are influenced by factors such as personality, mood, stress, and time of day. People with psychological disorders are thought to be more vulnerable to cognitive failures, possibly due to increased problems with related cognitive processing such as attention. Several self-report tools have been developed to measure cognitive failures. One common tool is the Cognitive Failures Questionnaire (CFQ), which requires individuals to indicate how frequently they have experienced a list…

Cognition in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia

What is cognition in bipolar disorder and schizophrenia? Neurocognitive deficits are a core feature of both schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. People with either disorder may perform poorly on cognitive tasks assessing intelligence, memory, executive functioning, language, information processing and attention. Establishing differences in these cognitive domains may assist correct diagnosis and treatment of the two disorders. What is the evidence for cognition in bipolar disorder compared to schizophrenia? Moderate to high quality evidence found large effects of better overall cognition, attention, and social cognition, and medium-sized effects of better speed of processing, working memory, learning, reasoning, and problem solving in…

Bipolar disorder

Cognition and bipolar disorder type

What is cognition and bipolar disorder type? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of depression and mania. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks in which a person has at least five of the following symptoms (including one of the first two): intense sadness or despair; feelings of helplessness, hopelessness or worthlessness; loss of interest in activities once enjoyed; feelings of guilt, restlessness or agitation; sleeping too little or too much; slowed speech or movements; changes in appetite; loss of energy; difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions; and/or thoughts of death or suicide. A manic…

Bipolar disorder

Cognition and bipolar disorder symptoms

What is the relationship between cognition and symptoms of bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of depression and mania, which can include psychosis. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks in which a person has at least five of the following symptoms (including one of the first two): intense sadness or despair; feelings of helplessness, hopelessness or worthlessness; loss of interest in activities once enjoyed; feelings of guilt, restlessness or agitation; sleeping too little or too much; slowed speech or movements; changes in appetite; loss of energy; difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions;…

Disorganised symptoms

Disorganisation

What are disorganised symptoms in bipolar disorder? Key features of the symptoms of disorganisation include disorganised speech and behaviour, as well as inappropriate affect. Severely disorganised speech is difficult to follow, being incoherent, irrelevant and/or illogical. These symptoms are sometimes called positive formal thought disorder symptoms. Disorganised speech may also be deprived of content, which is sometimes called negative formal thought disorder symptoms. Disorganised behaviour includes bizarre or inappropriate behaviour, actions or gestures. Inappropriate (incongruous) affect involves exhibiting incorrect emotional responses for a given context. Symptoms of disorganisation have been identified as risk factors for poor illness outcome, and have…

NeuRA Libraries

Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.