Topics tagged with "Hyperarousal"


What are hyperarousal symptoms in PTSD? Hyperarousal is a core symptom of PTSD, with at least two hyperarousal symptoms being required for a diagnosis. Hyperarousal symptoms include irritability or aggression, risky or destructive behaviour, hypervigilance, heightened startle reaction, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty sleeping. What is the evidence regarding hyperarousal in people with PTSD? Moderate to high quality evidence finds small effects of less sleep efficiency, less total sleep time, less slow wave sleep, and more wake time after sleep onset in people with PTSD. Moderate to low quality evidence finds a medium-sized effect that people with PTSD and sleep disturbances…

Assessment tools

Assessment tools

What are assessment tools for PTSD? Standardised assessment tools for PTSD are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. They are often used within a controlled research environment, but high-quality assessment tools are also useful in practice for both clinical management and outcome prediction. What is the evidence for outcome assessment tools for PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds a model comprising 4-factors of intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria/numbing yielded the best fit for clustering PTSD symptoms. Assessment measures for this model included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Modified PTSD Symptom Scale,…


How is a PTSD diagnosis made? A PTSD diagnosis requires exposure to at least one trauma. Traumas include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing a trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed. At least one “intrusion” symptom is required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include unwanted and upsetting memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and emotional distress or physical reactions following reminders. At least one “avoidance” symptom is also required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include avoidance of trauma-related thoughts or feelings,…

NeuRA Libraries

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