Topics tagged with "Mania"

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder

What is bipolar disorder in PTSD? Bipolar disorders are a group of disorders characterised by episodes of mania or hypomania and depression. In between episodes, mild symptoms of mania and/or depression may, or may not, be present. The bipolar disorders include bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder. Bipolar I disorder is characterised by mania, while bipolar II disorder is characterised by less severe hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder is the mildest of the bipolar disorders. A major depressive episode is at least two weeks of at least five of the following symptoms. Intense sadness or despair; feelings of helplessness, hopelessness or…

Valproate

What is valproate treatment for bipolar disorder? Valproate and its derivitive, divalproex, are anticonvulsants used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine headaches. Anticonvulsant medications influence the actions of neurotransmitters leading to a decrease in brain cell (neuron) excitability. In bipolar disorder, valproate is used mainly for the treatment of mania or mixed symptoms. What is the evidence for valproate as a treatment for bipolar disorder? Compared to placebo, moderate to high quality evidence found a medium-sized improvement in acute mania symptoms with valproate, and moderate to low quality evidence found a medium-sized improvement in acute depression symptoms. There…

Topriamate

What is topriamate treatment for bipolar disorder? Topriamate is an anticonvulsant medication primarily used to treat epilepsy and migrane headaches. It has also been tested for people with bipolar disorder. What is the evidence for topriamate for bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence showed no significant differences in mania or mixed symptoms following treatment with topiramate or placebo for up to 12 weeks. There was greater improvement in mania and mixed symptoms with lithium than with topiramate. There were no differences in side effects between topiramate and placebo or lithium. November 2021 Image: ©Grycaj – stock.adobe.com

Licarbazepine

What is licarbazepine treatment for bipolar disorder? Licarbazepine is an anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy. Anticonvulsant medications influence the actions of neurotransmitters leading to a decrease in brain cell (neuron) excitability. What is the evidence for licarbazepine as a treatment for bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence suggests licarbazepine is less effective than tamoxefin or risperidone for acute mania symptoms. There may be more discontinuation of treatment with licarbazepine than with olanzapine. There were no significant differences in acute mania symptoms between treatment with licarbazepine and placebo or other medications. November 2021 Image: ©Peter de Kievith – stock.adobe.com

Gabapentin

What is gabapentin treatment for bipolar disorder? Gabapentin is an anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of seizure disorders such as epilepsy. Anticonvulsant medications influence the actions of neurotransmitters leading to a decrease in brain cell (neuron) excitability. What is the evidence for gabapentin as a treatment for bipolar disorder? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests no differences between gabapentin and placebo for the treatment of mania symptoms. Low quality evidence is unable to determine differences between groups for treatment discontinuation; an indication of tolerability. November 2021 Image: ©cassis – stock.adobe.com

Carbamazepine

What is carbamazepine for bipolar disorder? Carbamazepine is an anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of seizure disorders such as epilepsy. Anticonvulsant medications influence the actions of neurotransmitters leading to a decrease in brain cell (neuron) excitability. Carbamazepine can also be used for the treatment of mania. What is the evidence for carbamazepine as a treatment for bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence suggests medium-sized effects of greater improvement in acute mania symptoms with carbamazepine than with placebo or topiramate. There was a large effect of greater improvement in acute mania symptoms with tamoxefin than with carbamazepine. There was more discontinuation…

Clozapine

What is clozapine for bipolar disorder? The treatment of bipolar disorder is complex due to the presence of varying configurations of symptoms in patients. The primary treatments for bipolar disorder are pharmacological, and often involve second generation antipsychotics. Based on its high affinity for both serotonin and dopamine receptors, clozapine has been proposed as a treatment for the disorder. What is the evidence for clozapine? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests improved symptoms and reduced hospitalisation, suicidal ideation, and aggressive behaviour, and also improved social functioning with clozapine in people with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. There were no differences in efficacy…

Sleep deprivation

What is sleep deprivation for bipolar disorder? Sleep deprivation, or ‘wake therapy’, involves being deprived of total sleep for approximately 36 hours straight, or partially sleeping for only 3 to 4 hours followed by 20 to 21 hours of wakefulness. This therapy has been associated with rapid improvements in depressed mood but may also trigger mania. Studies have used various treatment formats in the number, timing, and duration of sleep deprivation cycles to determine which works best for people with bipolar disorder. What is the evidence for sleep deprivation in people with bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence shows total sleep…

Bipolar disorder

Cognition and bipolar disorder type

What is cognition and bipolar disorder type? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of depression and mania. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks in which a person has at least five of the following symptoms (including one of the first two): intense sadness or despair; feelings of helplessness, hopelessness or worthlessness; loss of interest in activities once enjoyed; feelings of guilt, restlessness or agitation; sleeping too little or too much; slowed speech or movements; changes in appetite; loss of energy; difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions; and/or thoughts of death or suicide. A manic…

Bipolar disorder

Cognition and bipolar disorder symptoms

What is the relationship between cognition and symptoms of bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is characterised by episodes of depression and mania, which can include psychosis. A major depressive episode is a period of at least two weeks in which a person has at least five of the following symptoms (including one of the first two): intense sadness or despair; feelings of helplessness, hopelessness or worthlessness; loss of interest in activities once enjoyed; feelings of guilt, restlessness or agitation; sleeping too little or too much; slowed speech or movements; changes in appetite; loss of energy; difficulty concentrating, remembering or making decisions;…

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