Topics tagged with "Negative symptoms"

Medications for negative symptoms

What are negative symptoms?  Negative symptoms are referring to an absence of normal functions. This may include (but is not limited to) blunted affect, which is a scarcity of facial expressions of emotion, reduced frequency and range of gestures and voice modulation, and restricted eye contact; alogia (poverty of speech); asociality (reduced social interaction); avolition (reduced motivation and often poor hygiene) and anhedonia, which is reduced experience of pleasure. What is the evidence on medications for negative symptoms? Moderate to high quality evidence finds medium-sized effects of greater improvement in negative symptoms with clozapine, zotepine, amisulpride, olanzapine, perphenazine, and asenapine…

Depression

Negative symptoms

What are negative symptoms? The ‘negative symptoms’ of schizophrenia refer to an absence of normal functions. This includes a scarcity of facial expressions of emotion, reduced frequency and range of gestures and voice modulation, restricted eye contact, poverty of speech, reduced social interaction, reduced motivation, poor hygiene, and reduced experience of pleasure often manifesting as scarcity of recreation, inability to experience closeness, and reduced interest in any sexual activity. Deficit syndrome is a subtype of schizophrenia with persisting negative symptoms that is described by specifically defined assessments used primarily for research. What is the evidence regarding negative symptoms? Moderate to…

Schizoaffective disorder

What is schizoaffective disorder?  Schizoaffective disorder is on the schizophrenia spectrum of illnesses. Diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder requires schizophrenia-like symptoms of psychosis, in addition to affective/mood symptoms such as depression. There is some debate as to whether schizoaffective disorder represents a unique diagnosis or an intermediary between schizophrenia and mood disorders. There are also considerable differences between different diagnostic criteria regarding the definition of schizoaffective disorder; particularly the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) and the International Classification of Diseases (ICD) criteria. Specifically, the ICD and also the Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) require simultaneous and equally prominent presence of psychotic and…

Outcome assessment tools

How can outcome assessment tools be used for schizophrenia? Standardised assessment tools are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning and quality of life. The quality of these tools can be measured in various ways. ‘Reliability’ refers to the reproducibility of an instrument’s results across different assessors, settings and times. ‘Construct validity’ is the extent to which an instrument measures the theoretical construct it was designed to measure. This involves ‘convergent validity’ (the degree of correlation between different scales measuring the same construct); and ‘divergent validity’ (the lack of correlation between scales measuring different constructs). ‘Known groups’…

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