Topics tagged with "Sleep disturbance"

Acupuncture

What is acupuncture for PTSD? Acupuncture is practiced as an accepted health care model in China, Korea and Japan. Traditionally, it involves the stimulation of specific points (acupoints) by inserting needles into the skin. Electro-acupuncture is similar in that the same points are stimulated with needles inserted on specific points along the body. It uses two needles attached to an electrical device that generates continuous electric pulses. These pass from one needle to the other with varying frequency and intensity dictated by the condition. Administration is usually for no more than 30 minutes at a time. Laser acupuncture is essentially…

Intrusions in PTSD

Intrusions

What are intrusion symptoms in PTSD? Intrusions are core symptoms of PTSD, with at least one intrusion symptom being required for a diagnosis. Intrusion symptoms include unwanted and upsetting memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and emotional distress and/or physical reactivity after exposure to reminders. What is the evidence for intrusions in people with PTSD? Moderate to low quality evidence finds five clusters of intrusion symptoms; distressing memories, distressing dreams, flashbacks, emotional cue distress, and physiological cue reactivity. Items relating to distressing memories Disturbing memories kept coming into my mind. I found myself remembering bad things that happened to me. Upsetting thoughts kept…

Hyperarousal

What are hyperarousal symptoms in PTSD? Hyperarousal is a core symptom of PTSD, with at least two hyperarousal symptoms being required for a diagnosis. Hyperarousal symptoms include irritability or aggression, risky or destructive behaviour, hypervigilance, heightened startle reaction, difficulty concentrating, and difficulty sleeping. What is the evidence regarding hyperarousal in people with PTSD? Moderate to high quality evidence finds small effects of less sleep efficiency, less total sleep time, less slow wave sleep, and more wake time after sleep onset in people with PTSD. Moderate to low quality evidence finds a medium-sized effect that people with PTSD and sleep disturbances…

Assessment tools

Assessment tools

What are assessment tools for PTSD? Standardised assessment tools for PTSD are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. They are often used within a controlled research environment, but high-quality assessment tools are also useful in practice for both clinical management and outcome prediction. What is the evidence for outcome assessment tools for PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds a model comprising 4-factors of intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria/numbing yielded the best fit for clustering PTSD symptoms. Assessment measures for this model included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Modified PTSD Symptom Scale,…

Diagnosis

How is a PTSD diagnosis made? A PTSD diagnosis requires exposure to at least one trauma. Traumas include being exposed to threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Examples are direct exposure, witnessing a trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed. At least one “intrusion” symptom is required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include unwanted and upsetting memories, nightmares, flashbacks, and emotional distress or physical reactions following reminders. At least one “avoidance” symptom is also required for a PTSD diagnosis. These symptoms include avoidance of trauma-related thoughts or feelings,…

Medications for sleep disturbance

What is sleep disturbance in people with schizophrenia? Typically, sleep follows a characteristic pattern of four stages, where stage 1 is a state of drowsiness and early sleep, stage 2 comprises the largest component of the sleep cycle and is the first complete loss of awareness of the external environment, stage 3 is a deep slow-wave sleep, and the fourth stage is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where muscle paralysis and memorable dreaming occurs. Sleep disturbances include changes in sleep time, sleep latency (the length of time it takes from full wakefulness to sleep) and sleep efficiency (the amount of…

Sleep disturbance

What is sleep disturbance in bipolar disorder? People with bipolar disorder may show disturbances in the amount or quality of sleep they receive. Typically sleep follows a characteristic pattern of four stages, where stage 1 is a state of drowsiness and early sleep; stage 2 comprises the largest component of the sleep cycle and is the first complete loss of awareness of the external environment; stage 3 is a deep, slow-wave sleep; and the fourth stage is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where memorable dreaming and muscle paralysis occurs. Sleep disturbance can be measured in many ways, including the total…

Sleep disturbance

What is sleep disturbance in schizophrenia? Typically, sleep follows a characteristic pattern of four stages, where stage 1 is a state of drowsiness and early sleep, stage 2 comprises the largest component of the sleep cycle and is the first complete loss of awareness of the external environment, stage 3 is a deep slow-wave sleep, and the fourth stage is rapid eye movement (REM) sleep where muscle paralysis and memorable dreaming occurs. Sleep disturbances include changes in sleep time, sleep latency (the length of time it takes from full wakefulness to sleep) and sleep efficiency (the amount of time spent…

NeuRA Libraries

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