Topics tagged with "Treatment resistance"


What is clozapine for bipolar disorder? The treatment of bipolar disorder is complex due to the presence of varying configurations of symptoms in patients. The primary treatments for bipolar disorder are pharmacological, and often involve second generation antipsychotics. Based on its high affinity for both serotonin and dopamine receptors, clozapine has been proposed as a treatment for the disorder. What is the evidence for clozapine? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests improved symptoms and reduced hospitalisation, suicidal ideation, and aggressive behaviour, and also improved social functioning with clozapine in people with treatment-resistant bipolar disorder. There were no differences in efficacy…

Medication for treatment resistance

What is treatment resistance in bipolar disorder? Bipolar disorder is a persistent, episodic, and debilitating condition associated with recurring episodes of mania, hypomania, depression, and mixed manic-depressive states. These symptoms can lead to severe functional impairment, substance abuse, and suicidal behaviour. Treatment guidelines advocate the use of individual medications, with multiple medications indicated when a patient relapses on maintenance treatment. Unsatisfactory response to therapies is common in bipolar disorder, particularly during depressive episodes. Hence, there is a need to study medications that specifically target people with treatment resistance. What is the evidence for medication for treatment resistance? Moderate quality evidence…

Medications for treatment-resistant schizophrenia

What is treatment resistance?  Antipsychotic medications provide symptom respite and improvement in quality of life for many people with schizophrenia. However, for a subset of people with schizophrenia, antipsychotic medications do not provide adequate relief from symptoms. Treatment-resistant schizophrenia has many definitions that vary depending on the individual study, but a broad definition includes those patients whose symptoms have not responded to antipsychotic medications, or only partially responded. What is the evidence for treatment resistance? Moderate to high quality evidence finds a general pattern of superiority of clozapine, olanzapine or risperidone over other antipsychotics for improving symptoms in people with…

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