Topics tagged with "Depression"

Depressive disorders

What are depressive disorders in PTSD? Depression is characterised by a depressed mood or a loss of interest or pleasure in activities. Symptoms of depression include changes in appetite, weight, sleep, or psychomotor activity. There is often decreased energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide. Depression may also be associated with increased hopelessness, which is the absence of positive future orientation. This topic concentrates on depressive disorders in PTSD. Please also see the topic on depressive symptoms under signs and symptoms of PTSD. What is the evidence for depressive disorders?…

Bipolar disorder

Bipolar disorder

What is bipolar disorder in PTSD? Bipolar disorders are a group of disorders characterised by episodes of mania or hypomania and depression. In between episodes, mild symptoms of mania and/or depression may, or may not, be present. The bipolar disorders include bipolar I, bipolar II, and cyclothymic disorder. Bipolar I disorder is characterised by mania, while bipolar II disorder is characterised by less severe hypomania. Cyclothymic disorder is the mildest of the bipolar disorders. A major depressive episode is at least two weeks of at least five of the following symptoms. Intense sadness or despair; feelings of helplessness, hopelessness or…

Pregnancy and childbirth

How are pregnancy and childbirth related to PTSD? Exposure to at least one trauma is required for a diagnosis of PTSD. The latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) determines direct traumas as threatened death, actual or threatened serious injury, or actual or threatened sexual violence. Indirect traumas include witnessing the trauma, or learning that a relative or close friend was exposed to a trauma. Differences in trauma characteristics, including type and severity of exposure, can affect the risk of developing PTSD. Personal characteristics such as age and sex also influence risk. What is the evidence for risk of PTSD…

Acupuncture

What is acupuncture for PTSD? Acupuncture is practiced as an accepted health care model in China, Korea and Japan. Traditionally, it involves the stimulation of specific points (acupoints) by inserting needles into the skin. Electro-acupuncture is similar in that the same points are stimulated with needles inserted on specific points along the body. It uses two needles attached to an electrical device that generates continuous electric pulses. These pass from one needle to the other with varying frequency and intensity dictated by the condition. Administration is usually for no more than 30 minutes at a time. Laser acupuncture is essentially…

Depression

Negative thoughts and mood

What are negative thoughts and mood in PTSD? For a diagnosis of PTSD, there needs to be at least two “negative alterations in cognitions and mood”. These include negative thoughts or feelings that began or worsened after the trauma, an inability to recall key features of the trauma, overly negative thoughts and assumptions about oneself or the world, exaggerated blame of self or others for causing the trauma, negative affect (e.g., fear, horror, anger, guilt, or shame), decreased interest in activities, feeling isolated, and difficulty experiencing positive affect. What is the evidence for negative thoughts and mood in PTSD? Moderate…

Depression

What are depression symptoms in PTSD? Depression symptoms are common in people with PTSD. It is characterised by a depressed mood and a loss of interest or pleasure in activities. Symptoms of depression can also include changes in appetite, weight, sleep, or psychomotor activity, decreased energy, feelings of worthlessness or guilt, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, and thoughts of death or suicide. Depression may also be associated with increased hopelessness, which is the absence of positive future orientation. This topic concentrates on the occurrence of depressive symptoms rather than depressive disorders in PTSD. Please see the co-occurring mental disorders topic…

Assessment tools

Assessment tools

What are assessment tools for PTSD? Standardised assessment tools for PTSD are vital for assessing a range of variables including symptoms, functioning, and quality of life. They are often used within a controlled research environment, but high-quality assessment tools are also useful in practice for both clinical management and outcome prediction. What is the evidence for outcome assessment tools for PTSD? Moderate quality evidence finds a model comprising 4-factors of intrusions, avoidance, hyperarousal, and dysphoria/numbing yielded the best fit for clustering PTSD symptoms. Assessment measures for this model included the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, Modified PTSD Symptom Scale,…

Bereavement

Medications for depressive symptoms

How is depression relevant to people with schizophrenia? Depression is characterised by a depressed mood and/or a loss of interest or pleasure in activities. Symptoms of depression include changes in appetite, weight, sleep, and psychomotor activity, decreased energy, blunted affect, social withdrawal, difficulty concentrating or making decisions, feelings of worthlessness, hopelessness and guilt, and thoughts of suicide. As many symptoms are common to both depression and the negative syndrome of schizophrenia it can be difficult to identify a comorbid depressive illness in people with schizophrenia. Identifying and treating a comorbid depressive illness may increase the likelihood of recovery from psychosis…

Zonisamide

What is zonisamide treatment for bipolar disorder? Zonisamide is an anticonvulsant used primarily in the treatment of seizure disorders such as epilepsy. Anticonvulsant medications influence the actions of neurotransmitters leading to a decrease in brain cell (neuron) excitability. In bipolar disorder, zonisamide is used mainly for the treatment of depression. What is the evidence for zonisamide? Moderate to low quality evidence suggests zonisamide may be effective for general clinical improvement and depression, however, when compared to placebo there were no differences between groups in mania, hypomania, or mixed symptoms. November 2021 Image: ©pamela_d_mcadams – stock.adobe.com

Valproate

What is valproate treatment for bipolar disorder? Valproate and its derivitive, divalproex, are anticonvulsants used primarily in the treatment of epilepsy and migraine headaches. Anticonvulsant medications influence the actions of neurotransmitters leading to a decrease in brain cell (neuron) excitability. In bipolar disorder, valproate is used mainly for the treatment of mania or mixed symptoms. What is the evidence for valproate as a treatment for bipolar disorder? Compared to placebo, moderate to high quality evidence found a medium-sized improvement in acute mania symptoms with valproate, and moderate to low quality evidence found a medium-sized improvement in acute depression symptoms. There…

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