Topics tagged with "Substance use"

Substance use

Drugs, alcohol and smoking

How is substance use relevant to people with PTSD? Drug and alcohol use, abuse, or dependence are concerns for people with mental disorders due to their association with poor clinical and social outcomes such as high rates of suicide, HIV, homelessness, aggression, and incarceration. Comorbid substance use places additional burden on patients, families, psychiatric services, and government resources due to high rates of treatment non-adherence and relapse. Tobacco smoking is also very common and poses considerable health risks, potential interference with the metabolism of psychotropic medications, and financial burden. Heavy cigarette use may contribute to the increased mortality and reduced…

Substance use

Therapies for dual diagnosis

What is psychotherapy for dual diagnosis? Dual diagnosis describes a condition when a person with both a mental health diagnosis such as PTSD and a substance use disorder. This comorbidity is associated with poorer treatment outcomes than for either condition alone. Several psychological therapies are successful at treating each disorder individually, however when occurring together, they may be harder to treat. What is the evidence for psychotherapy for dual diagnosis? Moderate to low quality evidence found a small improvement in PTSD symptoms in people with a dual diagnosis following individual psychological treatments that have a trauma focus when compared to…

Medications for smoking cessation

How is smoking related to schizophrenia? Tobacco smoking is very common among people with schizophrenia, who often show particularly heavy usage. This poses considerable health risks, may interfere with antipsychotic medications and may place a financial burden on the individual. Heavy cigarette use may contribute to the increased mortality and reduced life expectancy reported within the schizophrenia population. What is the evidence for medications for smoking cessation? Moderate quality evidence finds medium-sized effects of more smoking cessation with bupropion or varenicline than with placebo, assessed at 3-month follow-up. Varenicline also reduced the number of cigarettes smoked per day and resulted…

Substance use

Drug and alcohol use

What is substance use in bipolar disorder? Substance use is a concern for people with a mental illness due to the association with poor clinical and social outcomes. Substance use places additional burden on patients, families, psychiatric services, and government resources due to high rates of treatment non-adherence and relapse. Substance abuse leads to risk-taking behaviour, illegal activity, interpersonal problems and a loss of interest in usual activities. Abuse jeopardises physical health and neglect of important commitments at home, school or work. Substance dependence involves having a strong physical or psychological need for the substance. Not taking it leads to…

Substance use

Substance use

How is substance use related to bipolar disorder? Various lines of evidence suggest an association between substance use and psychiatric disorders. In particular, use during adolescence or early adult life is now thought to be one of a number of environmental stressors that interact with genetic factors to predispose an individual to later bipolar disorder. What is the evidence for substance use as a risk factor for bipolar disorder? Moderate quality evidence suggests a medium to large effect of increased risk of bipolar disorder with prior cannabis use and a small to medium-sized effect of increased risk of bipolar disorder…

Substance use

Therapies for dual diagnosis

What is dual diagnosis? Dual diagnosis is a term that refers to having both a mental illness such as bipolar disorder and a substance use problem. Studies of dual diagnosis investigate the effectiveness and availability of treatments for improving outcomes relating to either diagnosis, such as symptoms, functioning, quality of life, substance use, or cognitive problems. What is the evidence for treatments for dual diagnosis? Moderate to low quality evidence finds some improvement in symptoms and substance use with cognitive behavioural therapy plus medication. However, these results were not consistently found using different measures of substance use and symptoms. November…

NeuRA Libraries

Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.