Title Colour Legend:
Green - Topic summary is available.
Orange - Topic summary is being compiled.
Red - Topic summary has no current systematic review available.

Memory

What is memory? 

Memory involves encoding, storage and retrieval of information. Short-term memory is the ability to remember information after several seconds or minutes; and long-term memory is the ability to remember information over a longer duration. Working memory involves information being temporarily held as well as manipulated. Episodic memory is long-term memory for autobiographical events. Semantic memory is memory for general facts, prospective memory is memory for future actions, and retrospective memory is memory for past events. Most memory tasks assess retrospective memory by measuring recall and recognition.

What is the evidence for memory?

Compared to controls, high quality evidence suggests a medium to large effect of poor working memory and prospective memory in people with schizophrenia. Moderate to high quality evidence also suggests a large effect of poor short-term memory, memory binding, and long-term memory. High quality evidence shows a small effect of better nonverbal episodic memory in males with schizophrenia compared to females with schizophrenia. Compared to people with affective psychoses (e.g. bipolar disorder), high quality evidence shows a medium-sized effect of poor visual delayed, verbal immediate, and verbal delayed memory in people with schizophrenia. Moderate quality evidence also suggests poor verbal working memory, but not spatial working memory. High quality evidence suggests people at clinical high risk of psychosis are more impaired on visuospatial working memory than people with a family history of psychosis. Moderate quality evidence suggests a small effect of poor working memory in people at clinical high risk for psychosis who transition to psychosis compared to people at clinical high risk for psychosis who do not transition to psychosis.

High quality evidence shows small to medium-sized associations between increased negative or disorganised symptoms and poor visual and verbal memory, with moderate quality evidence also suggesting a weak association with poor executive working memory. High quality evidence shows small to medium-sized associations between poor prospective memory and more severe general psychopathology, increased medication dose, duration of the illness, age, and decreased education and premorbid IQ. A medium-sized association is reported between better memory and higher levels of insight.

Moderate quality evidence suggests people taking olanzapine or risperidone show improvements in working memory after treatment, while people taking clozapine or quetiapine show no improvements in working memory. People taking olanzapine, clozapine or risperidone show improvements on delayed recall after treatment, while people taking quetiapine show no improvements. High quality evidence suggests improvements on delayed recall tasks with haloperidol.

 

 

April 2016

Page last updated: 4:33  6 September 2017

To view documentation related to this topic download the files below